Article abstract

Journal of Agricultural and Crop Research

Research Article | Published October 2017 | Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 49-65

 

Agronomic performance, dry matter yield stability and herbage quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach) accessions in different agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia

 


 

 

Gezahagn Kebede1*

Fekede Feyissa1

Getnet Assefa2

Mengistu Alemayehu2

Alemayehu Mengistu3

Aemiro Kehaliew1

Kassahun Melese4

Solomon Mengistu1

Estifanos Tadesse5

Shewangizaw Wolde6

Mergia Abera7

 

Email Author


 

1.     Holetta Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 31, Holetta, Ethiopia.


2.    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, P. O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

3.    Forage and Rangeland Scientist, Urael Branch, P. O. Box 62291, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

4.    D/zeit Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 32, D/zeit, Ethiopia.

5.    Adamitulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Adamitulu, Ethiopia.

6.    Areka Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 79, Areka, Ethiopia.

7.    Hawassa Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 6, Hawassa, Ethiopia.




………………..........................……………………............……....……..................................................………...……..…………

Citation: Kebede G, Feyissa F, Assefa G, Alemayehu M, Mengistu A, Kehaliew A, Melese K, Mengistu S, Tadesse E, Wolde S and Abera M (2017). Agronomic performance, dry matter yield stability and herbage quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach) accessions in different agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. J. Agric. Crop Res. 5(4): 49-65.

………………..........................……………………............……....……..................................................………...……..…………



 Abstract 


Ten Napier grass accessions were evaluated for agronomic performance, dry matter (DM) yield stability and nutritional attributes at Holetta, Debre zeit, Adamitulu, Areka and Hawassa agricultural research centers during the main cropping seasons of 2011 to 2014. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. At planting, diammonium phosphate (DAP) at the rate of 100 kg/ha was uniformly applied and additionally urea at the rate of 50 kg/ha was top dressed after forage harvesting. Combined analysis of variance indicated that the tested genotypes varied significantly (P < 0.05) for plant height and forage DM yield. However, the test environments displayed significant variations for all measured agronomic and quality traits except the crude protein (CP) content. The genotype by environment (G × E) interaction effects also reveled significant differences for plant height, DM yield, ash content, CP yield, digestible yield and hemicelluloses content. Of the total variance of DM yield, environment main effect accounted for 40.6%, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 14.8% and 38.8% respectively. The highest mean DM yield was recorded at Adamitulu (13.06 t/ha) followed by Areka (12.80 t/ha), Hawassa (11.80 t/ha), Debre zeit (10.50 t/ha) and Holetta (7.05 t/ha). Different stability parameters and models indicated that Napier grass accessions such as 16817, 16783 and local were the most stable while accessions such as 16791 and 16815 were the most unstable genotypes across the tested environments. The CP and in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were higher in the highlands while CP yield, digestible yield and most fiber components were relatively higher in the mid altitude areas indicating that temperature and amount of rainfall and its distribution had an adverse affect on the feed quality of Napier grass. Generally, Napier grass accessions such as 16817, 16783 and local are recommended for wider cultivation due to better DM yield stability performance across the test environments.

Keywords  accessions   agronomic performance   napier grass   nutritive values   yield stability  

 

 

 

 References 

 

Abdurahman B (2009). Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability of maize hybrids evaluated in Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, University of the Free State. Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Adane K (2003). Effects of stage of harvesting and fertilizer application on dry matter yield and quality of natural grass land in the high lands of north Showa. M.Sc. Thesis. The School of Graduate Studies, Alemaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia. p. 96.

Alberts MJA (2004). Comparison of statistical methods to describe genotype x environment interaction and yield stability in multi-location maize trials. M.Sc. Thesis, University of the Free State. Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Alemayehu M (1997). Conservation based forage development for Ethiopia. Self Help Development International and Institute for Sustainable Development. Berhanena Selam Printing Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. p. 197.

Anderson WF, Dien BS, Brandon SK, Peterson JD (2008). Assessment of Bermuda grass and bunch grasses as feed stocks for conversion to ethanol. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 145:13-21. DOI: 10.1007/s12010-007- 8041-y.

AOAC (1990). Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., Washington, DC, USA.

AOAC (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.

ARC (1984). The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock Agricultural Research Council. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK. (Suppl. No. 1).

Basford KE, Cooper M (1998). Genotype x environment interactions and some considerations of their implications for wheat breeding in Australia. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 4:153-174.

Bayble T, Melaku S, Prasad NK (2007). Effects of cutting dates on nutritive value of Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) grass planted sole and in association with Desmodium (Desmodium intortum) or Lablab (Lablab purpureus). Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 19, Article #11. Retrieved September 10, 2015, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/1/bayb19011.htm.

Boonman JG (1993). East Africa’s grasses and fodders: Their ecology and husbandry. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dortrecht, Netherlands, p. 341.

Boonman JG (1997). Farmers’ success with tropical grasses: Crop/pastures rotation in mixed farming in East Africa. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague, Netherlands. p. 95.

Butt MN, Donart GB, Southward MG, Pieper RD, Mohammad N (1993). Effect of defoliation on plant growth of Napier grass. Trop. Sci. 33:111-120.

Cardinal AJ, Lee M, Moore KJ (2003). Genetic mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci affecting fiber and lignin content in maize. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106:866-874.

Ceccarelli S (1997). Adaptation to low/high input cultivation. Adaptation in plant breeding, (Tigerstedt, P.M.A., ed), Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. pp. 225-236.

Cherney DJR, Cherney JH, Lucey RF (1993). In vitro digestion Kinetics and quality of perennial grass as influenced by forage maturity. J. Dairy Sci. 76:790-797.

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M (2013). World checklist of poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Mullen BF, Partridge IJ, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R (2005). Tropical forages. CSIRO, DPI&F(Qld), CIAT and ILRI, Brisbane, Australia.

Crossa J (1990). Statistical analyses of multi-location trials. Adv. Agron. 44:55-85.

Crossa J, Gauch HG, Zobel RW (1990). Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis of two international maize cultivar trials. Crop Sci. 30:493-500.

Cuomo GJ, Blouin DC, Beatty JF (1996). Forage potential of dwarf napiergrass and a pearl millet x napiergrass hybrid. Agron. J. 88:434-438.

Deitos A, Arnhold E, Miranda GV (2006). Yield and combining ability of maize cultivars under different eco-geographic conditions. Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol. 6:222-227.

Depeters E (1993). Forage quality and its implications. In: California Alfalfa workshop (eds) proceedings of the 23rd California alfalfa symposium at fresno, California, USA, pp. 93-146. Visala, California, USA: Department of agronomy and range sciences extension. Available at: http://alfalfa.ucdavis.edu/+symposium/proceedings/ index.aspx?yr=1993 (accessed 2 November 2011).

Diriba G, Robert B, Kurtu MY (2003). Variations in dry matter yield and nutritive value of Panicum coloratum and Stylosanthes guianensis mixed pasture as influenced by harvesting cycles. In: Proceedings of the 10th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, August 21-23, 2003.

Dixon AGO, Nukenine EN (1997). Statistical analysis of cassava yield trials with the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. Afr. J. Root Tuber Crops 3:46-50.

Eberhart SA, Russell WA (1966). Stability parameters for comparing varieties. Crop Sci. 6:36-40.

Farrell G, Simons SA, Hillocks RJ (2002). Pests, diseases and weeds of Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum: a review. J. Pest Manage. 48(1):39-48.

Fekede F (2004). Evaluation of potential forage production qualities of selected oats (Avena sativa L.) genotypes. M.Sc. Thesis. Alemaya University of Agriculture, Ethiopia.

Fekede F, Getnet A, Lulseged G, Muluneh M, Tadesse T (2005). Evaluation of Napier grass-vetch mixture to improve total herbage yield in the central highlands. In: Proceedings of the 13th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), August 25 – 26, 2005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Finlay KW, Wilkinson GN (1963). The analysis of adaptation in a plant breeding program. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 14:742-754.

Food and Agricultural Organization, FAO (2015). Grassland Index. A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Gauch HG (1992). Statistical Analysis of Regional Yield Trials: AMMI Analysis of Factorial Designs. Elsevier, New York. pp. 21-60.

Gauch HG, Zobel RW (1996). AMMI analysis of yield trials. In: Kang, M.S. and Gauch, Jr. H.G. (eds.). Genotype by environment interaction. pp. 85-122.

Gemechu K (2012). Genetic potential and limitations of Ethiopian chickpea (Cicer arietinumal) germplasm for improving attributes of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, phosphorus uptake and use efficiency, and adzuki bean beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) resistance. PhD. Thesis. Addis Ababa University faculty of life science, Ethiopia.

Getnet A, Gezahagn K (2012). Seed Research and Development of Perennial Forage Crops in the Central Highlands. In: Getnet Assefa, Mesfin Dejene, Jean Hanson, Getachew Anemut, Solomon Mengistu & Alemayehu Mengistu (eds.). Forage Seed Research and Development in Ethiopia. Proceedings of workshop held on 12-14 May, 2011 at EIAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ISBN: 978-99944-53-84-9.

Hagerman AE, Robbins CT, Weerasuriya Y, Wilson TC, McArthur C (1992). Tannin chemistry in relation to digestion. J. Range Manage. 45:57-62.

Hatfield RD, Weimer PJ (1995). Degradation characteristics of isolated and in situ cell wall lucerne pectic polysaccharides by mixed ruminal microbes. J. Sci. Food Agric. 69:185-196.

Humphreys LR (1991). Tropical pasture utilization. Cambridge. University press. Great Britain.

Hussain F, Durrani MJ (2009). Nutritional evaluation of some forage plants from Harboi rangeland, Kalat, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 41:1137-1154.

Ishii Y, Yamaguchi N, Idota S (2005). Dry matter production and in vitro dry matter digestibility of tillers among Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) varieties. Grassland Sci. 51:153-163.

Jukenvicius S, Sabiene N (2007). The content of mineral elements in some grasses and legumes. Ekologija. 53:44-52.

Kaitho RJ (1997). Nutritive value of browses as supplements to poor quality roughages. PhD thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.

Kaya Y, Palta C, Taner S (2002). Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions Analysis of yield performance in bread Wheat genotypes a cross environments. Turk. J. Agric. 26:275-279.

Lamb FSJ, Sheaffer CC, Rhodes HL, Sulc RM, Undersander JD, Brummer EC (2006). Five Decades of Alfalfa Cultivar Improvement: Impact on Forage Yield, Persistence, and Nutritive Value. Crop Sci. 46:902-909.

Leng RA (1990). Factors affecting the utilization of poor quality forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutr. Res. Rev. 3:277-303.

Lowe AJ, Thorpe W, Teale A, Hanson J (2003). Characterization of germplasm accessions of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum and P. purpureum x P. glaucum hybrids) and comparison with farm clones using RAPD. Genet. Resour Crop Evol. 50:121-137.

Lundvall JP, Buxton DR, Hallauer AR, George JR (1994). Forage quality variation among maize inbreeds: in-vitro digestibility and cell-wall components. Crop Sci. 34:1671-1678.

Mannetje CT (1983). Nutritive value of topical and sub-tropical pastures with special reference to protein and energy deficiency in relation to animal production. In: Gilchrist, F. M. C. and Mackie, R.I. (Eds.), Herbivore Nutrition in the Sub-tropic and Tropics. Science Publication, Pretoria pp. 55-66.

McDowell LR, Valle G (2000). Major minerals in forages. In: D.I. Givens, E. Owen, R.F.E. Axford and H. M. Omed (eds.). Forage Evaluation in Ruminant Nutrition. CABI Publishing, New York, NY. pp. 373-397.

Minson DJ (1990). Forage in ruminant nutrition. Academic press, Inc. San Diego. Moore KJ, Hatfield RD (1994). Carbohydrates and forage quality. In: Fahey G.C. (ed) Forage quality, evaluation, and utilization. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison. pp. 229-280.

Muinga RW, Thorpe W, Topps JH (1992). Voluntary food intake, live-weight change and lactation performance of crossbred dairy cows given ad libitum Pennisetum purpureum (napier grass var. Bana) supplemented with leucaena forage in the lowland semi-humid tropics. Anim. Prod. 55(3):331-337.

Mureithi JG, Thorpe W (1996). The effects of herbaceous legume intercropping and mulching on the productivity of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and total forage yield in coastal lowland Kenya. In: Jean Ndikumana and Peter de Leeuw (eds.) Sustainable Feed Production and Utilization for Smallholder Livestock Enterprises in Sub- Saharan Africa. African Feed Resources Network (AFRNET) Workshop held in Harare, Zimbabwe, 6-10 December, 1993. AFRNET, Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 45-50.

Mustafa AF, McKinnon JJ, Christensen DA (2000). The nutritive value of thins tillage and wet distillers' grains for ruminants. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1609-1618.

Muthuramu S, Jebaraj S, Gnanasekaran M (2011). AMMI Biplot Analysis for Drought Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Res. J. Agric. Sci. 2(1):98-100.

Mwendia SW, Wanyoike M, Nguguna JGM, Wahome RG, Mwangi DM (2006). Evaluation of Napier grass cultivars for resistance to Napier head smut. Proceedings of the 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI, Nairobi, Kenya. pp 85-97.

NRC (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th edn. National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. ISBN-13: 978–0–309–06997–7.

Nyambati EM, Sollenberger LE, Kunkle WE (2003). Feed intake and lactation performance of dairy cows offered Napier grass supplemented with legume hay. Livest. Prod. Sci. 83:179-189.

Pascual JJ, Fernandez C, Diaz JR, Garces C, Rubert-Aleman J (2000). Voluntary intake and in vivo digestibility of different date-palm fractions by Murciano-Granadina (Capra Hircus). J. Arid Environ. 45:183-189.

Pham HN, Kang MS (1988). Interrelationships among repeatability of several stability statistics estimated from international maize trials, Crop Sci. 28(1988):925-928.

Rotili P, Gnocchi G, Scotti C, Kertikova D (2001). Breeding of the alfalfa plant morphology for quality. Proceedings of the XIV Eucarpia Medicago sp. Group Meeting. Zaragoza 45:25-28.

Samonte SOPB, Wilson LT, McClung AM, Medley JC (2005). Targeting Cultivars on to Rice Growing Environments Using AMMI and SREG GGE Biplot Analyses. Crop Sci. 45:2414-2424.

Sanni KA, Ariyo OJ, Ojo DK, Gregorio G, Somado EA, Sanchez I, Sie M, Futakuchi K, Ogunabayo SA, Guel RG, Wopereis MCS (2009). Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis of grain yield performance in rice genotypes across environments. Asian J. Plant Sci. 8(1):48-53.

Schank SC, Chynoweth DP, Turick CE, Mendoza PE (1993). Napier grass genotype and plant parts for biomass energy. Biomass Bioenergy 4:1-7. Seyoum B, Zinash S, Tadesse T, Liyusew A (1998). Evaluation of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Pennisetum Hybrids (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum typhoides) in the central highlands of Ethiopia. In: Fifth National Conference of Ethiopian Society of Animal Production. 15-17 May, 1997, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Seyoum B, Zinash S, Tesfaye M (1996). Tef (Eragrostis tef) straw quality as influenced by variety and locations. In: Proceedings of the 4th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production. April 18-19, 1996, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 145-152.

Smith OB (1993). Feed resources for intensive smallholder systems in the tropics. The role of crops residues. In: Baker M.J. (Ed.), Grasslands for Our World. Sir publishing, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 740-747.

Solomon A, Mandefro N, Habtamu Z (2008). Genotype-Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Ethiopia. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2:163-169.

Souza ARR, Miranda GV, Pereira MG, Souza LV (2009). Predicting the genetic gain in the Brazilian white maize landrace. Ciência Rural. 39:19-24.

Statistical Analysis System, SAS (2002). SAS/STAT guide for personal computers, version 9.0 editions. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Strasia CA, Gill DR (1990). Formulating feedlot diets. Great plains beef cattle handbook. Animal Science Research Report. Agricultural Experimental Station, Oklahoma State University. Fact Sheet. pp. 1600-1625.

Tarakanovas P, Ruzgas V (2006). Additive main effect and multiplication interaction analysis of grain yield off wheat varieties in Lithuania. Agron. Res. 41(1):91-98.

Tessema Z (1999). Napier Grass Adapts Well in North Western Ethiopia. AgriTopia. EARO 14:1.

Tessema Z, Baars R, Alemu Y, Dawit N (2002). In sacco dry matter and nitrogen degradability and their relationship with in- vitro dry matter digestibility of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach.) as influenced by plant height at cutting. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 53:7-12.

Tessema Z, Baars R, Alemu Y, Dawit N (2003). Effect of plant height at cutting and fertilizer on growth of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach.) Tropical Sci. 43:57-61.

Tessema Z, Alemayehu M (2010). Management of Napier Grass (Pennisetum Purpureum (L.) Schumach) for High Yield and Nutritional Quality in Ethiopia: A Review. Eth. J. Anim. Prod. 10(1):73-94. ©Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) EJAP ISSN: 1607-3835, Volume 10, Number 1, 2010.

Tessema Z (2008). Effect of plant density on morphological characteristics, yield and chemical composition of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach). East Afr. J. Sci. 2:55-61. DOI: 10.4314/ eajsci.v2i1.40365.

Tilley JMA, Terry RA (1963). A two stage technique for the in-vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Brit. Grassl. Soc. 18:104-111.

Van Soest PJ (1982). Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. O & B books, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Van Soest PJ (1994). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, 2nd ed., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY p. 476.

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB (1979). Systems of analysis for evaluating fibers feed. In: Pigden, W.J., C.C. Balch and Michael Graham (Eds.), Standardization of Analytical Methodology for Feeds. Workshop proceeding, 12-14 March, Ottawa, Canada pp. 49-60.

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB (1985). Analysis of Forages and Fibrous Foods. A Laboratory Manual for Animal Science 613. Cornel University, Ithaca. New York, USA p. 202.

Weimer PJ (1996). Why don't ruminal bacteria digest cellulose faster? J. Dairy Sci. 79:1496-1502.

Wilson JR, Hatfield RD (1997). Structural and chemical change of cell-wall types during stem development: consequences of fibre degradation by rumen microflora. Austr. J. Res. 48:165-180.

Wolf DR, Coors JG, Albrecht KA, Undersander DJ, Carter PR (1993). Forage quality of maize genotypes selected for extreme fiber concentrations. Crop sci. 33:1353-1359.

Yan W (2002). Singular-value partition for biplot analysis of multi-environment trial data. Agron. J. 94:990-996.

Yan W, Hunt LA (2001). Interpretation of genotype × environment interaction for winter wheat yield in Ontario. Crop Sci. 41:19-25.

Yan W, Hunt LA, Sheng Q, Szlavnics Z (2000). Cultivar evaluation and mega environment investigation based on the GGE biplot. Crop Sci. 40:597-605.

Yan W, Kang MS (2003). GGE biplot analysis: A graphical tool for breeders, geneticists and agronomists. CRC press, Boca Raton, FL.

Yihalem D (2004). Assessment of Botanical Composition and Stage of Harvesting of selected Natural Pasture for Optimum Utilization as Hay at Andassa Livestock Research Center, Northwestern Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis the School of Graduate Studies, Alemaya University. p. 99.

Zewdu T (2005). Variation in growth, yield, chemical composition and in-vitro dry matter digestibility of Napier grass varieties (Pennisetum purpureum). Trop. Sci. 45:67-73.

Zobel RW, Wright MJ, Gauch JHG (1988). Statistical analysis of a yield trial. Agron. J. 80:388-393.